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United States: the social protection of veterans. Part 1

In the list of American national dates special place is occupied by two - Memorial Day deaths in wars (the last Monday in May) and Veterans Day, celebrated in November. But attention to veterans is not limited festive celebration. Providing social protection is one of critical of government policies in the social sphere and increasing the country's defense. It is about developing and implementing complex safeguards applicable to military personnel, reservists, veterans.

 A citizen in the service in the Armed Forces, to be sure that if in the performance of military duty, his health will be harmed, they will receive timely and quality medical care, adequate financial compensation necessary to restore health as well as the possibility of physical, occupational rehabilitation, in the case of dismissal from the Sun - assistance in obtaining education, employment. Equally important is the confidence in the military that if they killed the family members receive proper maintenance. By 2005, the United States there were approximately 25 million veterans Despite the continuous decline in their numbers, federal allocations to the Ministry of Veterans Affairs are increasing from year to year. Only during the reign of the Bush administration, they increased from 45.1 billion dollars in 2001 to 67.3 billion dollars in 2005

The legal framework in accordance with U.S. law defining the status of the veteran, not only as a citizen, but as a special subject of public relations, governed by his general civil rights, freedom, social protection and special rights and benefits of legal software systems social protection of veterans based on the principle of compensation of specific hardships and privations of military service, damage to health in the period of service. The system of social protection of veterans and their families based on a broad legal framework and covers the following guarantees:
  • * pensions, including disability, survivors; 
  • * life and health insurance veteran 
  • *; privileges in taxation of certain veterans' payments 
  • *; medical care of veterans, their families, including survivors; 
  • * Physical psychological rehabilitation of veterans; 
  • * loans for housing construction, the use of mortgage lending; 
  • * the availability of educational and vocational training, employment assistance in the civilian sector in dismissal education and employment of family members of veterans with disabilities; 
  •  * organization and financing of the funeral
.At present, questions of legal protection for veterans are administered by committees operating within the structures of the Senate (the Armed Forces and Veterans Affairs) and House of Representatives (Committee on National Security and Veterans' Affairs). Issues of social protection of veterans are also the subject of discussions in the Committees on Appropriations, Budget, Foreign Affairs of the Senate, the Committees on Appropriations, Budget, Science House of Representatives.

The scope of these committees include:
  • nomination of legislative initiatives in the field of social protection of war veterans, Armed Forces and their families;
  • analysis of legislative practice and oversee the implementation of relevant laws;
  • coordination of the various committees on these issues
  • consultation with the president, government, carrying out procedures for consultation draft laws in this area;
  • defense budget, for which provision is made to veterans;
  • publication of reports on the status of social protection of veterans and the challenges in this area, monitor the budget for the relevant appropriation.
 Annually to the Congress made numerous amendments to the legislation governing social security, health care, employment of veterans. In addition to laws regulating labor relations, social security increase the availability of education, health care, as well as information and telecommunication services, which are distributed to the entire population or specific groups with limited physical, mental, physical facilities, the U.S. has laws elaborated and adopted specifically to social protection of veterans, to adapt to civilian life retired. A number of laws on ensuring soldiers demobilized after the war, embodied in the so-called "Soldier's Bill of Rights Act (GI Bill of Rights) The first of these laws -" On the compensation to veterans of World War (Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924) - provides that compensation will be paid since 1945 but in 1936 adopted the Law on Allowances (Bonus Act), which would immediately allocate owed to veterans of World War compensation payments.

In 1944 the Act was passed providing for demobilized soldiers (soldiers' Readjustment Act), under which were introduced: the financing of health care, hospital care, rehabilitation, payment of education in colleges; guarantee loans for housing purchase a farm; cash benefits to unemployed veterans and other kinds of maintenance of their income. In "Soldier's Bill of Rights" includes the laws of war veterans in Korea and Vietnam, providing for their medical care, assistance in obtaining an education, all credits made to the legislation be amended consolidated in a voluminous code of laws of the United States. Legislation governing the provision of appropriate social support for veterans, dedicated a special thematic section of Title 38 - "Veterans benefits" (name, 38 - Veterans benefits).

Allocation of assets to the payments to veterans, the rendering by them of medical aid and the assignment of privileges - one of the main program articles, asserted by law about the Federal Budget. Assignments on it bear strictly purposeful nature and are expended by ministry for the matters of veterans. They are intended for financial and other aid to veterans, their families, which survived breadwinner- veteran, and also for the civilian personnel [VS]. This article provides for compensation for the loss of the health as a result of injuries in the military operations, pensions and increases to them for the long-term honorable service and other forms of material reward, free medical service; financing instruction, and also aid in the acquisition of automobiles, auxiliary devices for facilitating the vital activity of veterans. Expenditures for conducting of scientific research in the region of medicine for improving the process of treating the extra-heavy diseases are separated by special line Budget provides for also coating expenditures for the maintenance of administrative apparatus in the sphere of the support of veterans. General assignments according to the article of [veteranskikh] payments and services to ministry for the matters of veterans for 2005 [f].[g]. are 67 314 mln. dollars. To the maintenance of administrative apparatus it is provided for to isolate only to 0,56% of this sum.

In addition to specific large-scale programs to support veterans, their social security as U.S. residents is based on a broad legal framework, presented in Title 20 - "Education" (Section 20 - Education), Title 29 - "Work" (name, 29 - labor) Title 42 - Public health and welfare "(name, 42 - Health and Welfare).

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